Background We think of a battery today as a source of portable power, but it is no exaggeration to say that the battery is one of the most important inventions in the history of mankind.Volta's pile was at first a technical curiosity but this new electrochemical phenomenon very quickly opened the door to new branches of both physics and chemistry and a myriad of discoveries, inventions and applications. Initially inspired by the development of batteries, it covers technology in general and includes some interesting little known, or long forgotten, facts as well as a few myths about the development of technology, the science behind it, the context in which it occurred and the deeds of the many personalities, eccentrics and charlatans involved."Either you do the work or you get the credit" Yakov Zel'dovich - Russian Astrophysicist Fortunately it is not always true.It puts discussions on the top rate of tax into perspective: claims high earners need extra support in the form of tax cuts are highly dubious given the increases in pay awarded." The gender pay gap continued to narrow in 2011, but progress was markedly slower than in 2010.Women in full-time employment earn on average £5,409 less than men – a gap £179 narrower than it was in 2010. The slowdown means it would take an extra 19 years for women's pay to equal that of men's, with 2041 being the year in which full-time earning between the genders would equate.
Chief executives and directors of "leading organisations" earnings rose 15% to £112,157, in part a result of trends shifting earnings to basic pay and away from bonuses.One feature of the previous Labour administration was widening inequality, but real wages increased across every income group.This year's earnings figures, with wages stagnant in even nominal terms, look more like those from the USA than the UK.The headline figures in this year's annual survey of hours and earnings – the official survey of wages across the United Kingdom – make difficult enough reading on their own: the average full-time worker's income rose just 1.4% on 2010, considerably less than the current rate of CPI inflation.However, even this figure masks several ills in the current state of the UK labour market, with falling numbers in full-time work, rising wage inequality, and slowing progress in reaching equality in pay between women and men.Hairdressers' salaries fell 4.5% to £9,599, while cleaners' compensation fell 3.4%.The amount of pay needed to be in the top 10% of full-time earners increased by 1.9% since 2010, to £52,643; while the threshold for the bottom 10% of full-time workers increased 0.6%, to £14,905.Hieroglyphic script evolved slightly later in Egypt. found in a temple at Erech in Mesopotamia show a chariot with solid wooden wheels.Though the script appeared on vases and stone carvings, many important Egyptian historical scripts and records were written in ink, made from carbon black (soot) or red ochre mixed with gelatin and gum, applied with a reed pen onto papyrus. Evidence from Ur indicates that the simpler potter's wheel probably predates the use of the axled wheel for transport because of the difficulty in designing a reliable mechanism for mounting the rotating wheel on a fixed hub or a rotating axle on the fixed load carrying platform.This shift in job function depressed overall salary growth just a tenth of inflation.Pay for low earners also grew far less than that of high earners, with the wages of the bottom 10% increasing just 0.1% year-on-year, while the top 10% of earners saw salary increases of 1.8%.