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The federation is a union because it is indestructible and helps to maintain the unity of the country.Art 155 and 156 provide that the Governor, who is the constitutional head of a State, is to be appointed by the President and stays only until the pleasure of the President The Centre may take over the administration of the State on the recommendations of the Governor or otherwise.Such an amendment has to be passed by majority of total members of each house of the Parliament as well as by two-thirds majority of the members present and voting there in.However, in addition to this process, some amendments must be approved by at least 50% of the states.The procedure of amending the Constitution in a federal system is normally rigid.Indian Constitution provides that some amendments require a special majority.In a federal set up there is a two tier of Government with well assigned powers and functions.In this system the central government and the governments of the units act within a well defined sphere, co-ordinate and at the same time act independently. Wheare defines federal government as an association of states, which has been formed for certain common purposes, but in which the member states retain a large measure of their original independence.

This question cannot be answered without going into the meaning of federalism and the essential features that are evident in federal state.The following provision of Indian constitution makes it unitary Article I of the Constitution describes India as a ‘Union of States’, which implies two things: firstly, it is not the result of an agreement among the States and secondly, the States have no freedom to secede or separate from the Union.Besides, the Constitution of the Union and the States is a single framework from which neither can get out and within which they must function.In other words, Governor is the agent of the Centre in the States.The working of Indian federal system clearly reveals that the Governor has acted more as centre’s representative than as the head of the State.It can declare a law as unconstitutional, if it contravenes any provision of the Constitution.In spite of the fact that the Indian Constitution establishes a federal structure, it is indeed very difficult to put the Indian Constitution in the category of a true federation.However, this is not applicable in case of Indian States.They have unequal representation in the Rajya Sabha.It has been the matter of debate among the scholars that whether the constitution of India is completely federal or unitary in nature.But actually Indian constitution contains both features of a federal constitution and unitary constitution.

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