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Network attack graphs are originally used to evaluate what the worst security state is when a concerned net-work is under attack. Combined with intrusion evidence such like IDS alerts, attack graphs can be further used to perform security state posterior inference (i.e. In this area, Bayesian network is an ideal mathematic tool, however it can not be directly applied for the following three reasons: 1) in a network attack graph, there may exist directed cycles which are never permitted in a Bayesian network, 2) there may exist temporal partial ordering relations among intrusion evidence that can-not be easily modeled in a Bayesian network, and 3) just one Bayesian network cannot be used to infer both the current and the future security state of a network. The WC material is not permitted to contain any additives that are deemed carcinogens or are long-term hazards to human health. PHASE I: Study and demonstrate the feasibility of a procedure to produce a WC material with high density (≥ 14 g/cm), flexure strength (≥ 3 GPa), a fracture toughness (≥ 11 MPa√m) and a minimum Knoop hardness, using a 2 kg indentation load, of 15 GPa. Cooke, “Cyber Cog: A synthetic task environment for studies of cyber situation awareness.” Paper presented at the 10th International Conference of Naturalistic Decision Making, Orlando, FL, May 31-June 3, 2011.6. This program seeks bold, new basic research that addresses the design, creation, and employment of nontraditional approaches on synthesis of novel high temperature magnetic alloys and nanostructures that take into account geometric or topological descriptors to characterize similarity and scaling between stimuli under the multi-dimensional external fields (i.e., magnetic and thermal fields) to secure revolutionary advances. PHASE II: There is special interest in fundamental research of high temperature permanent magnets with minimized rare-earth element concentration by focusing on understanding combined thermal loads; e.g. Similarly, a successful second year of this Phase II effort could be expected to demonstrate and deliver five (5) additional WC rods 500mm long as well as 25 near-net shape projectiles having a diameter of 5.56mm (± 0.008 mm) with a length and nose geometry specified by the Army POC. Systems that can carry out human-in-the loop simulation and cyber exercises will lead to new capabilities in assessing the effectiveness of analysts and tools they use, help enhance individual and team performance, and provide assistance in training of new analysts. These rods will be delivered to the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) for evaluation. Technologies based on attack graph technology and operational concepts like team structure help create a common operating picture and lay a foundation for human analysts to establish cyber situation awareness.

This development could change the state-of-the-art for individual soldier lethality as we know it, with tremendous savings realized by the Army because of increased lethality PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: Cemented tungsten carbide is widely used in the commercial sector for cutting tools, saw blades, wear-resistant components in industrial machinery, sporting goods, and surgical equipment. PHASE II: 1) Develop a working cyber situation awareness simulation and assessment prototype, and establish the capability of recreating/replaying attack scenarios for analyst training and situation awareness effectiveness assessment; 2) Demonstrate the effectiveness of analyst training and assessment using the system. Li, et al., “Using Attack Graphs and Intrusion Evidences to Extrapolate Network Security State,” Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Communications and Networking in China, Guang Zhou, 2009. Bhahramani, “An Introduction to Hidden Markov Models and Bayesian Networks,” International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence, Vol. TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes OBJECTIVE: The objective of this basic research announcement is building the foundation for the discovery, characterization and predictability of non rare-earth containing high temperature aerospace alloys for high temperature applications. In all these applications having additional cobalt-free alternatives would be highly desirable and competitive. Goldsmith, “Non-Ideal Projectile Impact on Targets,” Int. PHASE III DUAL-USE COMMERCIALIZATION: Effective cyber attack mitigation is a critical capability for both the military and commercial sectors. PHASE III: Ultimately the procedures developed during the performance of this SBIR for manufacturing WC small-arms projectiles will then be scaled and applied to other caliber projectiles such as the 7.62mm and 50 cal. PHASE I: 1) Research and develop a novel simulation and analysis model based on a cognitive task analysis of the cyber domain that directly integrates network models, attack graph visualization, low-level vulnerability information, and decision support functions; 2) Extend existing team cognition metrics for cognitive system performance to assess tool effectiveness and cyber situation awareness 3) Evaluate the psychological validity of the tool by conducting human-in-the-loop testing. These rods and projectiles will be delivered to ARL for evaluation. The system developed under this topic will create a new capability in assessing team effectiveness and in training new analysts. The program seeks highly innovative and nontraditional approaches that advance the fields of high temperature structural materials, and electro-physics research through the discovery and characterization of new non rare-earth containing high temperature metallic alloys that exhibit superior performance at conditions of thermomechanical and physical extremes. The developed technology will be useable on both government networks and commercial networks for testing technology with humans-in-the-loop, for analyzing analysts’ effectiveness, and for training new analysts. DESCRIPTION: The rare earths elements (REE) are a group of 17 elements composed of scandium, yttrium, and the lanthanides. In Phase III, system effectiveness will be validated under real operational testing with human analysts. Based on this, we further propose a network security assessment and enhancement method along with a small network scenario to exemplify its usage. Kaushik, “Scalable, Graph-Based Network Vulnerability Analysis,” Procee- dings of the 9th ACM Conference on Computer & Communications Security, Washington DC, 2002, pp. The proposer would be expected to report and if successful demonstrate a process for making a 500mm long rod bowing while maintaining dimensional integrity over the entire length of the rod. Randow, “Modeling the Ballistic Response of the 14.5mm BS41 Projectile,” Eur. Special Topics, 206, 129-137 (2012)[4] “12 Report on Carcinogens,” National Toxicology Program, US Department of Health and Human Services, 2011KEYWORDS: Tungsten Carbide, Armor-piercing projectiles, Fracture strength, Fracture toughness OSD12-T08 TITLE: TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems OBJECTIVE: To develop a novel human-in-the loop simulation and assessment system that integrates various network models, attack graph visualization, low-level vulnerability information, and decision support functions for cyber situation awareness research and for assessing and enhancing team cyber situation awareness and assisting cyber analyst training. The desired process must be able to produce WC material in a cylindrical rod form with a diameter of 5.56mm (± 0.008 mm).


  1. PUBLICATIONS. Cyber Security and. Practical Attack Graph Generation for network Defense. K. Cunningham, R. Validating and Restoring Defense in Depth using.

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